- Infer the ability of various materials to absorb or release thermal energy in order to conceptually relate mass, specific heat capacity, and temperature of materials to the amount of heat transferred. (Calculations with p q mC T should be used to aid in conceptual development through laboratory investigation and analysis, not as problem-solving exercises.)
- Compare thermal energy, heat, and temperature. Relate phase changes to latent heat that changes the potential energy of particles while the average kinetic energy of particles (temperature) remains the same. (Link to PSc.2.1.2)
- Compare conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of energy transfer.